as a system of signs, used to express graphically the language, is one
of the most important conquests of the humanity. Since the first known
signs, the writing undergo several changes until reaching our alphabet
system. In this evolution we can distinguish two essential phases: the
ideograph writing and the phonetic writing. In the first stadium the
writing was composed by pictorial signs, representing objects or ideas
with a simple ideograph valour. To express ideas and objects was
necessary to apply for equal signs. In a second stadium the signs
started to represent, not yet objects or ideas, but sounds.
The signs beyond the ideograph valour started to have also a phonetic
valour according to the words in which they were rised. The ancient
writing vestiges came from Sumer (Law Mesopotamia) which old reaches
approximately 5.500 years.
Like the Sumer writing, the Egyptian writing (hieroglyphs), is at the
same time ideograph and phonetic. For example, the Sumer writing had
almost 20.000 simple and composed ideograms.
The greatest writing conquest was the creation of the Alphabet,
word that has a Latin origin (alfabetum). The two first words are from
the Greek alphabet "Alfa" and "Beta". The Phoenician alphabet,
perhaps based in Proto-Sinai writing (before the 15th century BC) was
the perfects and ancients alphabet. With 3.000 years, this alphabet is
composed of more or less twenty two signs, that permits to write any
word. The alphabet simplicity was the key to his rapid expansion. It
was adopted for the Aramaeans from the beginning of the 10th century
BC and transmitted to the Nabataens, Sirius, Persians and Hebrews. The
Arabic alphabet seams to came from the Phoenician, although it is
difficult to determine how and when this transformation began.
For our civilisation the most important
fact was the adoption of the Phoenician alphabet for the Greeks, in the
middle of the 8th century BC. The Greeks introduced the notation of
vocalic sounds. The first inscriptions, lined themselves from the right
to the left, seamed to be similar to the Phoenician signs. The classical Greek Alphabet of the 6th century BC is composed of 24
vowels and consonants letters.
From this writing other non-Hellenic kind of writing appeared (the Etruscan or the Lician). In the Middle Ages, the Gothic and
the Slavian alphabet also had a strong Greeck influence. The Latin Alphabet
come from the Etruscan alphabet and other Italic writings. First
documents are dated from final 7th century BC and the beginning of the
6th century BC. In 1th century BC the Latin alphabet was perfectly
composed of 23 words. With the Roman Imperium and the domination of the
Occidental world, the Latin alphabet imposed itself in all colonies.
What we intent to divulge here is only a small part of the great course
that writings went through. We present here some texts with a short
explanation about the beginning of the writing and his development. Some
of these alphabets were during the years casted in metal for famous
founders like Claude Garamond (16th century). His intention was offer to
Europe, Greek and Latin editions. The puncheons used in the realisation
of this alphabets are considered today "historical monuments",
because they constituted an important mark of the writing and